Cervical cancer develops through pre-cancerous stages (cervical dysplasia, CIN) over many years. The cervix is part of the female reproductive system, which also includes the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina and vulva. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Cervical cancer statistics - 2019 estimations

  • Cervical cancer is estimated to be the 14th most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and the third most commonly diagnosed gynaecological cancer in Australian women;
  • 951 females diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2019 ie. 1.4% of all new female cancer cases diagnosed;
  • 256 female deaths from cervical cancer in 2019 which is 1.2% of all females deaths from cancer;
  • 74% of patients with cervical cancer survive the 5 year mark. 

Known risk factors

Risk factors for cervical cancer are:

  • infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus transmitted by sexual activity
  • smoking
  • lack of regular Cervical Screening Tests
  • age
  • taking contraceptive pills for a long time
  • previous abnormality or cancer of the cervix
  • having many children
  • diethylstilboestrol (DES).


Changes to cervical cells do not usually cause any symptoms – this is why regular Cervical Screening tests are so important.

If cervical cell changes develop into cervical cancer, the most common symptoms include:

  • vaginal bleeding between periods
  • vaginal bleeding after menopause
  • bleeding after sex
  • pain during sex
  • unusual vaginal discharge.

Advanced cervical cancer is very uncommon, but it may cause:

  • extreme tiredness
  • leg pain or swelling
  • lower back pain.

Many conditions can cause these symptoms, not just cervical cancer. However, if you have unusual bleeding, discharge or pain, please see your doctor as soon as possible.

Prevention and screening

As of 1 December 2017, the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program changed from the Pap test, that has been replaced with a Cervical Screening Test. For more information, visit the Cancer Australia website. Regular Cervical Screening tests have reduced the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries of the developed world.

In addition to not smoking, there are two important ways of preventing cervical cancer:

  • using the Cervical Screening test
  • the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination.

Diagnosis and treatment

Treatment depends on the stage of disease. Very early cervical cancer (microinvasive) can be treated by a cone biopsy or a simple hysterectomy. Patients with cervical cancer limited to the uterine cervix require a radical hysterectomy, at which a safety margin around the cancer is taken. These patients also require removal of lymph nodes along the large blood vessels in the pelvis. Patients with advanced disease (stage 2+) require a combination of chemotherapy (weekly) plus radiotherapy (daily) for four to six weeks. Survival depends on the stage of disease with more than 75% of patients surviving stage 1.

Detailed information about diagnosis testing and treatment options can be found on the Cancer Australia website.

Source: Cancer Australia 2020