Vaginal cancer is rare. We see less than 20 patients with vaginal cancer every year in Australia. Due to its rareness, knowledge about risk factors is sparse. While most cancer is of “skin” type (squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma), some cancers are very aggressive arising from stromal tissue (sarcomas) or from glandular tissue (adenocarcinomas). Treatment involves surgical excision for very early cancers and radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of both for more advanced cancers.